This is sponsored content. M&F is not endorsing the websites or products listed in this article.

Curious about HGH peptides?

This promising class of compounds is the subject of many studies that indicate numerous therapeutic benefits. In this ultimate guide, we detail all you need to know about these popular research peptides.

We’ll explain:

  • What is peptide therapy?
  • What are HGH peptides?
    What is the best source for quality HGH peptides?

If you’re a researcher interested in HGH peptides, read on to learn how to safely and effectively add them to your experimentation. From the basics to best handling practices and required research materials, this guide has you covered.

P.S.: Get our free eBook detailing the wide world of research peptides – just click here!

What is HGH?

HGH (Human Growth Hormone), also known as GH or somatropin, is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the pituitary gland. It is vital to proper physical development from infancy to adulthood, regulating the growth of bone and other tissues. HGH remains important in adulthood for its role in various metabolic functions [1, 2, 3]. These include:

  • Maintaining bone density
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Body composition

HGH levels naturally decline with age starting around 30 in healthy individuals, sometimes leading to:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Sexual dysfunction

Growth Hormone Deficiency

Pathologically low levels of HGH are diagnosed as GH deficiency (GHD). This condition presents a range of symptoms in both adults and children and is attributable to various causes, to be discussed below. Among the symptoms of GHD are [4]:

  • Stunted development and slowed hair growth in children
  • High levels of body fat
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Insulin resistance
  • Fatigue

Synthetic HGH (rhGH)

Synthetic HGH (rhGH) is a long-standing, FDA-approved treatment for numerous conditions in GH-deficient children and adults, such as [5, 6]:

  • GHD
  • Certain genetic diseases
  • Slowed growth due to renal failure
  • HIV/AIDS-related muscle loss
  • Short bowel syndrome

Beyond this, the evidenced therapeutic potentials of HGH therapy in both diagnosed GH-deficient and undiagnosed adults include [6, 7]:

  • Improved body composition
  • Better physical performance
  • Greater energy levels
  • Lowered cardiovascular risk
  • Anti-aging benefits
  • Faster injury recovery
  • Reproductive health
  • Improved inflammatory response

While HGH is vital to overall health, rhGH is used in medical settings to counter the effects of insufficient GH levels and exhibits many therapeutic applications in research to date.

Do HGH Peptides Actually Work-2

What is Peptide Therapy?

Peptide therapy is an emergent pharmaceutical area that has recently captured the interest of leading clinical researchers around the world. Peptides are bioactive compounds naturally present in the body that are vital to many physiological functions. Ongoing studies have revealed the healing potential of synthetic peptides in a range of diverse contexts.

Composed of amino acid chains, there are over 13,000 distinct organic peptides and approximately 1 × 1013 synthetic ones [8]. Both types are classed by their structure (cyclic or linear) or molecular weight, which governs oral availability [9].

The practice of peptide therapy involves the application of either organic or synthetic peptides in medical contexts. Peptides may be developed into medical products called peptide therapeutics or peptide-based drugs, both of which harness the power of peptides to increase the bioavailability, potency, and efficacy of medical preparations [8, 9, 10].

Peptides have demonstrated therapeutic potential in a growing number of clinical areas, such as:

  • Treatment of metabolic diseases and obesity [11]
  • Improved injury and wound recovery [12]
  • Anti-inflammatory effects [13, 14]
  • Anti-aging and improved cognitive health [15]
  • Improved immune response and body composition [16, 17]

Though there is a relative lack of long-term data on peptide administration in human subjects due to the novelty of the field, the vast majority of therapeutic peptides and derived products are known to have favorable safety profiles when properly handled in clinical settings [18, 19, 20, 21].

What are HGH Peptides?

Peptides that alter levels of human growth hormone have been closely studied for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as GH deficiency, genetic disorders, renal failure, and HIV/AIDS-related muscular degeneration [22, 23]. 

Further clinical and therapeutic applications of HGH peptides include the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, improved sexual health, better athletic performance, and enhanced injury recovery. HGH peptides are also documented to have anti-aging effects [24]. 

Peptides used in HGH peptide therapy are classed as either synthetic analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH analogs) or synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (also known as growth hormone-releasing peptides or GHRPs). Both increase endogenous HGH levels to various therapeutic effects. Let’s briefly explore each [25].

GHRH Analogs

Synthetic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is structurally distinct from endogenous growth hormone-releasing hormone and has been evidenced for decades to act synergistically with its parent hormone for increased GH output. GHRH peptides such as sermorelin may be modified for greater stability, potency, and bioavailability than endogenous GHRH [26].


In contrast, synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHRPs) act not upon the GHRH receptor, but on the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), also known as the ghrelin receptor, increasing GH release through alternate means. Early GH secretagogues include MK-677, a selective ghrelin agonist that is still prized among clinicians for its oral bioavailability and highly targeted GH release [26, 27].

Top HGH Peptides

With so many HGH secretagogues and peptides on the market, the topic at hand can be confusing.

To make things simple…

These are the most popular HGH peptides among leading researchers at present:

  1. Ipamorelin
  2. Hexarelin
  3. Sermorelin
  4. CJC-1295 DAC
  5. GHRP-2
  6. GHRP-6

Read on to learn more about HGH peptide therapy, including the causes of GH deficiency, the specific benefits of top HGH peptides, and the best practices to employ when handling peptides in your research. 

Plus, we will direct you to your best online HGH peptide source.

What Causes Low Human Growth Hormone?

The pathological condition of low human growth hormone, known as growth hormone deficiency (GHD), arises when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough growth hormone. This condition may be extant at birth (congenital) or arise at a later age (acquired) [28].

Cases of GHD in both children and adults are attributed to a range of causes, and in some cases, the cause is unknown (idiopathic). Symptoms, treatments, and prognoses vary with cause and age of onset. Diagnoses are issued after extensive testing by qualified endocrinologists. Here, we will explore the common causes and associated symptoms of GHD [28].


The incidence of GHD in children is often attributed to genetic or idiopathic origins. It can also be caused by damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus before, during, or after birth.

This damage may be elicited by head injury, radiation, a brain tumor, or an autoimmune condition known as lymphocytic hypophysitis.

Congenital GHD may present symptoms in infancy or later in childhood. Typical symptoms of pediatric GHD are slowed growth resulting in a small stature and immature appearance, delayed puberty, adiposity, and deficient hair growth. Additional complications include fatigue, low bone density, and increased cardiovascular risk. Diminished levels of HGH in children normally continue into adulthood [4, 29, 30, 31]. 


Adult-onset GHD is most often caused by pituitary damage due to tumors, brain surgery, or radiotherapy. Additional causes of pituitary damage resulting in GHD include head trauma and infection, such as meningitis or hemorrhagic fever. It has also been linked with autoimmune diseases and interrupted blood supply to the pituitary gland [4, 32].

Symptoms of acquired GHD in adults include weakened bone and muscle, cognitive decline, fatigue, insulin resistance, adiposity, and increased cardiovascular risk. It can also cause anxiety and depression [4, 32].

Even in individuals without GHD, levels of GH are subject to naturally decline with age. This can present undesirable effects such as fatigue, weight gain, and diminished sexual health [22, 23].

Do HGH Peptides Actually Work-3

HGH Peptides vs. HGH

Although different types of compounds, HGH peptides, and HGH have many commonalities in their clinical outcomes. They also have unique benefits.

Here, we will explore the key differences and similarities between the two:


1. Structure [33]

  • HGH is a single-chain peptide composed of 192 amino acids. In contrast, there are numerous different HGH peptides with a variety of structures.

2. Function [33, 34]

  • HGH is released from the pituitary gland to directly affect a range of physiological processes, including tissue growth, renal function, and metabolism. Crucial to overall health, it plays a vital role in development from birth into adulthood.
  • HGH peptides are strictly exogenous and act upon ghrelin and GHRH receptors to increase GH output in the pituitary gland. Many HGH peptides are evidenced to achieve additional effects beyond those associated with GH output.

3. Therapeutic applications [33, 34, 35, 36, 37]

  • Since its development in the 1980s, recombinant HGH (rhGH) has been applied in growth hormone replacement therapy to treat a range of conditions. These include GHD, renal failure, and inflammatory diseases, among others. It is available only by prescription in the USA.
  • HGH peptides increase HGH to achieve similar benefits to rhGH with other potential therapeutic uses. These include targeted cognitive and physical anti-aging effects, neuroprotection, and dramatically improved physical composition.
    In contrast to rhGH, HGH peptides stimulate endogenous HGH release, which may apport more restorative benefits.

4. Side effects [34, 36, 37, 38, 39]

  • Significant adverse effects of rhGH therapy include severe injection site pain, gynecomastia, insulin resistance, and malignancy.
  • Although rhGH is generally well-tolerated when properly administered, it has been linked with neuroendocrine decline. In contrast, HGH peptides are broadly shown to preserve neural feedback mechanisms, inducing the balanced release of endogenous HG.
  • Most HGH peptides’ potential long-term side effects are unknown due to a lack of data. Transient side effects tend to be mild, such as facial flushing, headache, and injection site swelling.

5. Cost [40, 41, 42, 43]

  • GHD is cited as a significant economic burden due in large part to the relatively high cost of HGH treatments, which may cost from $1000 to $5000 a month. Studies on the budgetary impact of HGH therapy weigh the efficacy of treatment in achieving specific clinical goals, leading to varying evaluations of cost-effectiveness.
  • Meanwhile, formal courses of HGH peptide therapy are typically well below $1000 per month and are largely considered more price efficient.


1. Structure [33]

  • Like HGH peptides, HGH itself is technically a peptide, composed of amino acid chains. It is more specifically considered a peptide hormone.

2. Function [33, 43]

  • Because HGH peptides stimulate GH release, their functions overlap quite a bit. The associated effects of GH such as bone and muscle growth      as well as improved metabolic and cardiovascular function are shared to varying degrees depending on the peptide.

3. Therapeutic applications [33, 44]

  • Both may be applied to treat symptoms of GH deficiency, such as bone and muscle weakness, cardiovascular risk, and fatigue.

4. Side effects [33, 34, 38, 45]

  • In clinical trials, both HGH peptides and HGH have been shown to have possible adverse effects. While severe side effects have been noted in rhGH, there is a relative lack of data on similar episodes in HGH peptide therapy. Many popular HGH peptides maintain favorable safety profiles. As such, confirmed shared side effects include transient outcomes such as injection site irritation.

In summation, HGH peptides and HGH share many features and therapeutic benefits. The most notable difference between the two is the higher cost of HGH.

Benefits of HGH Peptides

The benefits of HGH peptide therapy significantly overlap with exogenous GH therapy.

Shared areas of clinical impact and therapeutic potential include the following:

  • Treatment and diagnosis of GHD
  • Addressing symptoms of genetic disorders and renal failure
  • Combating muscular degeneration due to HIV/AIDS
  • Treatment of neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases
  • Better physical performance
  • Improved body composition
  • Greater energy levels
  • Less risk of cardiovascular disease
  • Sexual and reproductive health benefits
  • Improved injury recovery and wound healing
  • Better immune and inflammatory response
  • Anti-aging effects
  • Increased quality of sleep
  • Stimulation of collagen synthesis and repair

Ongoing research indicates further benefits of HGH peptides that may exceed the scope of traditional HGH treatments. These are primarily due to the enhancement of HGH’s anabolic effects through advances in peptide therapy [6, 7, 36, 37, 46, 47, 48, 49].

Homeostatic GH Release

As mentioned above, HGH peptides may outperform exogenous HGH in some respects due to their stimulation of endogenous GH secretion. The natural release of GH enables the brain to maintain homeostasis in contrast to the potentially disruptive process of flooding the system with synthetic GH.

Adverse effects of synthetic GH therapy can include pituitary damage and endocrine interference, as elevated levels of exogenous GH have been shown in some cases to suppress the pituitary gland, leading to the erosion of pituitary function. Alternately, the stimulation of endogenous GH release through peptide therapy enables pulsatile timing in coordination with the body’s natural feedback mechanisms [36, 37].

Further, multiple HGH peptides may be safely applied in combination to enhance their effects in qualified settings [36, 37, 50].

In sum, HGH peptides share most of the primary benefits of rhGH. Many exhibit further potential due to their specificity, versatility, and synergy with natural physiological processes. Ongoing studies are sure to add to the growing number of therapeutic applications of HGH peptides.

Best Growth Hormone Peptides

We have combed the latest peer-reviewed studies to rank the best growth hormone peptides. These are overall some of the top peptides for muscle growth and weight loss, each proffering distinct additional benefits in clinical trials. Here, we will break down the essentials of these exciting compounds, including their structures, documented therapeutic potentials, and ongoing areas of study.

    1. Ipamorelin

Ipamorelin is a potent growth hormone secretagogue and ghrelin agonist that is prized for its highly targeted effect on the pituitary gland. A         derivative of GHRP-1, this synthetic pentapeptide was the earliest known GH secretagogue to achieve selective GH release [51, 52].

Since its development over 20 years ago, it has been the subject of numerous clinical studies. Application in animal models indicates its effectiveness in combating muscle catabolism due to glucocorticoid use. It has also been shown to stimulate significant growth in many types of tissue, including bone, muscle, and vasculature while improving sleep [36, 53, 54, 55].

Further animal studies suggest that it may dramatically enhance cartilage regeneration (chondrogenesis), affecting better joint health as well as anti-aging benefits. It is theorized to achieve chondrogenesis through the regulation of collagen-specific genes or stem cell enhancement [48, 56].

Although significant data on ipamorelin administration in human subjects is pending further research, it generally retains a favorable safety profile, both well-tolerated and without significant side effects in clinical trials [36, 57].

Learn more about Ipamorelin here.

      2. Hexarelin

Hexarelin, also known as examorelin and HEX is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue and agonist of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR).

The hexapeptide is structurally similar to its parent hormone, ghrelin, although slightly modified for greater potency, stability, and tolerability. It has been shown to significantly increase GH levels with additional GH-independent effects. Although it is classed as a ghrelin analog with targeted GHS-r stimulus, it is considered a multi-receptor peptide, evidenced in human and animal studies to stimulate the release of not only GH, but to a lesser degree prolactin, cortisol, and other vital hormones [58, 59].

Specifical areas of clinical impact in hexarelin administration are attributable to its potency as a GHRP, as well as its GH-independent behaviors. Its targeted GH release is shown to improve physical composition and athletic performance. Meanwhile, its most prominent benefit is its apparent cardioprotective effect, theorized to be a GH-independent function [60]. It also shows promise as a sleep aid and treatment for certain endocrine and genetic disorders in addition to GHD [36, 58, 61, 62].

Hexarelin has a positive safety profile to date when properly administered in clinical settings [36, 63].

     3. Sermorelin

Sermorelin, also known as sermorelin acetate, is a synthetic GHRH analog. The 29-amino acid peptide is a fragment of its parent hormone, which consists of 44 amino acids. It was marketed under FDA approval until 2008 to diagnose and treat GHD in both adults and children, withdrawn for reasons unrelated to safety or effectiveness [64, 65, 66].

A highly effective somatropin agonist, sermorelin is evidenced to have great therapeutic potential in addition to its proven efficacy as a GHD treatment. In both human and animal

studies, it has been shown to increase lean muscle mass for improved body composition, and it shows promise as a treatment for the symptoms of male hypogonadism. Further research suggests that it can improve cardiovascular and metabolic health and elicit anti-aging effects [67, 68, 69, 70, 71].

Having undergone extensive analysis before FDA approval, sermorelin has a verifiably outstanding safety profile.

Learn more about Sermorelin here.

    4. CJC-1295 DAC

CJC-1295 DAC is a synthetic GHRH analog that is known for its long half-life and extended efficacy due to its selective binding with blood albumen. Studies have shown that it not only releases GH but uniquely sustains high GH levels in the bloodstream when properly administered. The suffix DAC designates that the 29 amino acid CJC-1295 has been modified via the bioconjugation platform known as Drug Affinity Complex for enhanced duration and effectiveness [72, 73, 74].

In both human and animal studies, the administration of this peptide has been evidenced to improve body composition, strengthen bones, and boost metabolic health. It is also under analysis as a GHD treatment in both children and adults [72, 75].

Experts note that the combination of CJC-1295 and ipamorelin has a synergistic effect, stimulating the growth hormone axis via two different receptors (GHRH-R and GHS-R, respectively) to significantly raise GH levels with increased therapeutic outcomes [76].

This compound maintains a positive safety profile, with few severe side effects noted in human trials [72, 74].

      5. GHRP-2

GHRP-2, also known as pralmorelin, is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue that closely mimics the effects of ghrelin, its parent compound. Among the earliest synthetic growth hormone secretagogues to be developed, this hexapeptide has been heavily studied for a range of therapeutic applications. It is currently marketed as a diagnostic peptide for GH deficiency.

The primary benefits of GHRP-2 administration are improved metabolic health, affecting lean muscle growth, as well as enhanced immune response, appetite, and sleep. Research also suggests that it has cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory benefits with the potential to treat diseases such as arthritis and fibrosis. It has additionally been proven to address the symptoms of growth hormone deficiency in children and adults.

GHRP-2 is suited to both oral and parenteral administration with minimal evidenced side effects [36 44, 67, 77].

      6. GHRP-6

GHRP-6, also known as growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide, is another early synthetic GHRP, acting on the pituitary for selective GH release [36, 44, 67, 78].

Like GHRP-2, it is known to have broad anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects, contributing to metabolic and cardiovascular health while modulating the immune response. Other shared benefits include improvements in appetite and sleep quality. It has been shown in animal studies to have neuroprotective effects, boosting cognitive health and countering the symptoms of stroke and Parkinson’s disease. Further studies suggest that it may have therapeutic potential to treat low sex drive, particularly in male subjects [79, 80, 81].

GHRP-6 to date has a positive safety profile and may be administered via oral (sublingual) or parenteral routes [36].

Where to Start?

As this topic can be confusing, our research team wanted to make things as simple as possible for you…

Choosing Your HGH Peptide

When it comes to choosing the best HGH peptide for your research, you have an excellent selection to consider. All six of our most recommended HGH peptides have been shown to increase endogenous GH release, affecting many of the same outcomes as traditional GH therapy. Plus, each is evidenced to have unique therapeutic potential.

The ranking of these peptides is challenging, as they each have well-documented strengths and nuanced differences. All would make great additions to broad research into HGH peptides.

Familiarize yourself with our selection and consider these questions when choosing your HGH peptide:

  • What are my primary therapeutic targets?
  • Am I interested in GHRH analogs, GHRPs, or a combination?
  • What are my priorities regarding safety testing and known research?

For example, ipamorelin has decades of research to back its targeted GH release and tolerability. However, the remaining peptides have distinct features that may be more suitable for your research.

Sermorelin, having undergone full FDA approval, has an outstanding safety profile. It is also a GHRH agonist, stimulating a different receptor within the GH axis from the GHS analogs ipamorelin, hexarelin, and GHRP.

Another GHRH agonist, CJC-1295 DAC is a great choice if longevity is your interest. Meanwhile, GHRP-2 and GHRP-6 are of particular interest for their potency and cardioprotective effects.

Many researchers advocate the synergistic combination of GHRPs and GHRH analogs. Choose wisely based on the strengths applicable to your research!

Purchase and Handle Responsibly

After selecting your peptide, proper sourcing and handling are crucial. Purchase peptides strictly from reputable vendors and follow expert guidelines on dosing, storage, and administration. This will require you to inform yourself of the latest pertinent peer-reviewed literature on your chosen peptide.

Read on for further information on HGH peptide purchase, materials, and handling.

HGH Peptide Injections

Our review of best practices when handling HGH peptides would be incomplete without guidelines on standard administration supplies and methods. When it comes to optimal rates of diffusion and bioavailability in HGH peptide delivery, subcutaneous injection is widely considered the best route.

While specific peptide administration dosages and schedules may vary, HGH injections are typically performed shortly before bedtime to complement the body’s natural rates of endogenous GH release. HGH peptides are often sold in the form of lyophilized powder, requiring reconstitution with a sterile solvent before subcutaneous injection.

Leading researchers agree that bacteriostatic water is the ideal solvent for HGH peptide reconstitution due to its organic preservative agent that reduces the risk of contamination and extends the shelf-life of peptide solutions.

In addition to bacteriostatic water, you will need a few standard lab supplies. At a minimum, you should be equipped with:

  • Vial of bacteriostatic water
  • Vial of lyophilized HGH peptide
  • Alcohol wipes
  • Sterile syringe


To reconstitute the HGH peptide before injection, follow this method:

  1. Wipe all materials with alcohol pads to cut the risk of contamination.
  2. Insert the syringe into the bacteriostatic water vial and withdraw a small amount. See dosage specifications.
  3. Gradually inject the bacteriostatic water into the peptide vial, slowly dissolving the powder.
  4. Do not agitate, shake, or stir. This can destroy the peptides. The solution will be transparent when it is mixed.
  5. The unused solution may be stored in the refrigerator for subsequent use.

If you are unsure of where to purchase the necessary materials, don’t worry. We have a recommendation for that, too!

Check out:

This reputable online vendor offers not only bacteriostatic water but the full set of supplies you need for HGH peptide reconstitution. All supplies are available in convenient research kits.

The starter kit has:

  • 200 Alcohol Prep Pads
  • 100 Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½)
  • 3 Vials of Bacteriostatic Water (30mL)
  • 10 Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1)
  • 1 Sterile Empty Glass Vial (10mL)

The premium kit delivers:

  • 200 Alcohol Prep Pads
  • 200 Insulin Syringes (0.5 cc/mL x 29g x ½)
  • 5 Vials of Bacteriostatic Water (30mL)
  • 20 Large Needles + Syringes Combo (3cc x 21g x 1)
  • 2 Sterile Empty Glass Vials (10mL)

Ensure success in your HGH peptide research with a premium supply set.

Do HGH Peptides Actually Work-4


Below are answers to some common questions about HGH peptides…

Do HGH peptides work?

Yes, when properly administered in qualified settings, HGH peptides have been proven to have a range of therapeutic effects in both human and animal trials. From treating symptoms of GH deficiency to improving overall cardiovascular, metabolic, and sexual health, HGH peptides are backed by decades of clinical research to support their efficacy and tolerability.

Which peptide is best as HGH?

In considering the top HGH peptides, all are exceptional in their own ways, offering nuanced benefits. Whether your principal area of clinical impact is better sleep, anti-aging, or increased muscle mass, you may find that one of our top six recommended peptides is better suited to your research than the rest. Familiarize yourself with the unique strengths of each, as well as the potential synergistic benefits of combined use.

How long does it take HGH peptides to work?

This is highly dependent on the course of therapy. Within the first 8 weeks of administration by qualified practitioners, many subjects experience marked improvements in sleep, physical performance, energy levels, and skin elasticity. Courses of therapy may require up to 9 months to reach optimal benefits.

Do you need a prescription for HGH peptides?

For research purposes, there is no prescription required to purchase most HGH peptides within the USA. Be sure to purchase from trusted sources that offer quality guarantees including purity testing from third-party labs. Individuals who are personally considering undergoing HGH peptide therapy are strongly advised to consult medical professionals for the safety and efficacy of treatment.

Are HGH peptides approved by the FDA?

Certain HGH peptides like tesamorelin currently hold FDA approval for a very limited use. The vast majority, however, cannot be marketed for therapeutic use in humans. Peptides sold online are non-prescription and uncontrolled substances, legal for purchase, sale, and handling strictly for research purposes in qualified settings. The marketing of HGH peptides as medicinal products in the USA is illegal and subject to legal sanctions. However, ongoing research may lead to changes in the legal status of many peptides in the future [82].

HGH Peptides | Verdict

This concludes our ultimate guide on HGH peptides.

HGH is vital to human growth, development, and lifelong health. Unfortunately, many suffer from insufficient levels of pituitary GH output, associated with symptoms from stunted growth in children to sexual dysfunction, fatigue, and weight gain in adults.

The novel field of HGH peptide therapy presents promising avenues for the safe treatment of low growth hormone levels. Innovative studies show the potential of synthetic GHRH analogs and GHRPs to not only address known symptoms of low GH but provide additional benefits with few known side effects.

Within the burgeoning arena of peptide research, HGH peptides are surely one of the most exciting topics to date.

Incorporate HGH peptides like ipamorelin into your research with the purchase of world-class products from our recommended supplier.


  1. HGH (human growth hormone): What it is, benefits & side effects [Internet]. Cleveland Clinic. 2021 [cited 2022Aug26]. Available from:
  2. Genentech: Understanding human growth hormone [Internet]. Genentech: Understanding Human Growth Hormone. 2022 [cited 2022Aug28]. Available from:
  3. Bidlingmaier M, Strasburger CJ. Growth hormone. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(195):187-200. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-79088-4_8. PMID: 20020365.
  4. Growth hormone injections: Uses and side effects [Internet]. Medical News Today. MediLexicon International; [cited 2022Aug26]. Available from:
  5. Dunkin MA. HGH (human growth hormone): Uses and side effects [Internet]. WebMD. WebMD; [cited 2022Aug26]. Available from:
  6. Hintz RL. Growth hormone: uses and abuses. BMJ. 2004 Apr 17;328(7445):907-8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.328.7445.907. PMID: 15087325; PMCID: PMC390151.
  7. Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging [Internet]. Harvard Health. 2021 [cited 2022Aug27]. Available from:
  8. Yuan Y. Mechanisms Inspired Targeting Peptides. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1248:531-546. doi: 10.1007/978-981-15-3266-5_21. PMID: 32185724.
  9. Craik DJ, Fairlie DP, Liras S, Price D. The future of peptide-based drugs. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013 Jan;81(1):136-47. doi: 10.1111/cbdd.12055. PMID: 23253135.
  10. Erak M, Bellmann-Sickert K, Els-Heindl S, Beck-Sickinger AG. Peptide chemistry toolbox – Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics. Bioorg Med Chem. 2018 Jun 1;26(10):2759-2765. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2018.01.012. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29395804.
  11. Gao Y, Yuan X, Zhu Z, Wang D, Liu Q, Gu W. Research and prospect of peptides for use in obesity treatment (Review). Exp Ther Med. 2020 Dec;20(6):234. doi: 10.3892/etm.2020.9364. Epub 2020 Oct 16. PMID: 33149788; PMCID: PMC7604735.
  12. Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Sever M, Klicek R, Radic B, Drmic D, Stupnisek M, Misic M, Vuletic LB, Pavlov KH, Barisic I, Kokot A, Japjec M, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Rokotov DS, Vrcic H, Staresinic M, Sebecic B, Sikiric P. BPC 157 and Standard Angiogenic Growth Factors. Gastrointestinal Tract Healing, Lessons from Tendon, Ligament, Muscle and Bone Healing. Curr Pharm Des. 2018;24(18):1972-1989. doi: 10.2174/1381612824666180712110447. PMID: 29998800.
  13. Sosne G, Qiu P, Goldstein AL, Wheater M. Biological activities of thymosin beta4 defined by active sites in short peptide sequences. FASEB J. 2010 Jul;24(7):2144-51. doi: 10.1096/fj.09-142307. Epub 2010 Feb 23. PMID: 20179146.
  14. Ma WH, Li M, Ma HF, Li W, Liu L, Yin Y, Zhou XM, Hou G. Protective effects of GHK-Cu in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammation pathways. Life Sci. 2020 Jan 15;241:117139. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117139. Epub 2019 Dec 4. PMID: 31809714.
  15. Dou Y, Lee A, Zhu L, Morton J, Ladiges W. The potential of GHK as an anti-aging peptide. Aging Pathobiol Ther. 2020 Mar 27;2(1):58-61. doi: 10.31491/apt.2020.03.014. PMID: 35083444; PMCID: PMC8789089.
  16. N Mohammadi E, Louwies T, Pietra C, Northrup SR, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B. Attenuation of Visceral and Somatic Nociception by Ghrelin Mimetics. J Exp Pharmacol. 2020 Aug 5;12:267-274. doi: 10.2147/JEP.S249747. PMID: 32801950; PMCID: PMC7415447.
  17. Chang Y, Huang R, Zhai Y, Huang L, Feng Y, Wang D, Chai R, Zhang W, Hu H. A potentially effective drug for patients with recurrent glioma: sermorelin. Ann Transl Med. 2021 Mar;9(5):406. doi: 10.21037/atm-20-6561. PMID: 33842627; PMCID: PMC8033379.
  18. Audie J, Boyd C. The synergistic use of computation, chemistry and biology to discover novel peptide-based drugs: the time is right. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(5):567-82. doi: 10.2174/138161210790361425. PMID: 19929848.
  19. Abdulghani, A. A., Sherr, A., Shirin, S., Solodkina, G., Tapia, E. M., Wolf, B., & Gottlieb, A. B. (1998). Effects of topical creams containing vitamin C, a copper-binding peptide cream and melatonin compared with tretinoin on the ultrastructure of normal skin-A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. Disease Management and Clinical Outcomes, 4(1), 136-141.
  20. Moulin, A., Ryan, J., Martinez, J., & Fehrentz, J.A. (2007). Recent Developments in Ghrelin Receptor Ligands. ChemMedChem. 2(9) 1242-1259.
  21. (2015). Sermorelin acetate.
  22. Dunkin MA. HGH (human growth hormone): Uses and side effects [Internet]. WebMD. WebMD; [cited 2022Aug26]. Available from:
  23. Hintz RL. Growth hormone: uses and abuses. BMJ. 2004 Apr 17;328(7445):907-8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.328.7445.907. PMID: 15087325; PMCID: PMC390151.
  24. Bidlingmaier M, Strasburger CJ. Growth hormone. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(195):187-200. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-79088-4_8. PMID: 20020365.
  25. Arvat, E., Broglio, F., Giordano, R., Muccioli, G., Maccario, M., Camanni, F., & Ghigo, E. (1999). Hormonal Activities of Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS) across Human Lifespan. Growth Hormone Secretagogues, 139-155.
  26. Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Muccioli, G., & Camanni, F. (1997). Growth hormone-releasing peptides, European Journal of Endocrinology, 136(5), 445-460. Retrieved Dec 12, 2022, from
  27. Patchett AA, Nargund RP, Tata JR, Chen MH, Barakat KJ, Johnston DB, Cheng K, Chan WW, Butler B, Hickey G, et al. Design and biological activities of L-163,191 (MK-0677): a potent, orally active growth hormone secretagogue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jul 18;92(15):7001-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.92.15.7001. PMID: 7624358; PMCID: PMC41459.
  28. Growth hormone deficiency [Internet]. Growth Hormone Deficiency | Johns Hopkins Medicine. 2019 [cited 2022Dec10]. Available from:,is%20no%20clear%20cause%20identified
  29. Di Iorgi, N., Morana, G., Allegri, A. E. M., Napoli, F., Gastaldi, R., Calcagno, A., Patti, G., Loche, S., & Maghnie, M. (2016). Classical and non-classical causes of GH deficiency in the paediatric age. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30(6), 705-736.
  30. Growth hormone deficiency [Internet]. Growth Hormone Deficiency | Boston Children’s Hospital. [cited 2022Dec10]. Available from:
  31. Default – Stanford Medicine Children’s health [Internet]. Stanford Medicine Children’s Health – Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford. [cited 2022Dec10]. Available from:
  32. Adult-onset growth hormone deficiency [Internet]. You and Your Hormones. [cited 2022Dec10]. Available from:
  33. Taghizadeh, B., Jaafari, M. R., & Zarghami, N. (2022). New insight into the importance of formulation variables on parenteral growth hormone preparations: potential effect on the injection-site pain. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 13.
  34. Walker RF. Sermorelin: a better approach to management of adult-onset growth hormone insufficiency? Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(4):307-8. doi: 10.2147/ciia.2006.1.4.307. PMID: 18046908; PMCID: PMC2699646.
  35. Import alert 66-71 [Internet]. [cited 2022Dec10]. Available from:
  36. Sigalos, J. T., & Pastuszak, A. W. (2018). The Safety and Efficacy of Growth Hormone Secretagogues. Sexual Medicine Reviews, 6(1), 45-53.
  37. Boohaker RJ, Lee MW, Vishnubhotla P, Perez JM, Khaled AR. The use of therapeutic peptides to target and to kill cancer cells. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(22):3794-804. doi: 10.2174/092986712801661004. PMID: 22725698; PMCID: PMC4537071.
  38. Souza FM, Collett-Solberg PF. Adverse effects of growth hormone replacement therapy in children. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2011 Nov;55(8):559-65. doi: 10.1590/s0004-27302011000800009. PMID: 22218437
  39. Reed, M. L., Merriam, G. R., & Kargi, A. Y. (2013). Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 4.
  40. Craik DJ, Fairlie DP, Liras S, Price D. The future of peptide-based drugs. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013 Jan;81(1):136-47. doi: 10.1111/cbdd.12055. PMID: 23253135.
  41. Lee JM, Davis MM, Clark SJ, Hofer TP, Kemper AR. Estimated cost-effectiveness of growth hormone therapy for idiopathic short stature. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Mar;160(3):263-9. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.160.3.263. PMID: 16520445.
  42. G Radetti, F Buzi, C Paganini, A Pilotta, B Felappi, Treatment of GH-deficient children with two different GH doses: effect on final height and cost-benefit implications, European Journal of Endocrinology, Volume 148, Issue 5, May 2003, Pages 515–518,
  43. Lee AC, Harris JL, Khanna KK, Hong JH. A Comprehensive Review on Current Advances in Peptide Drug Development and Design. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 14;20(10):2383. doi: 10.3390/ijms20102383. PMID: 31091705; PMCID: PMC6566176.
  44. Berlanga-Acosta, J., Abreu-Cruz, A., García-del Barco Herrera, D., Mendoza-Marí, Y., Rodríguez-Ulloa, A., García-Ojalvo, A., Falcón-Cama, V., Hernández-Bernal, F., Beichen, Q., & Guillén-Nieto, G. (2017). Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs): A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects. Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology, 11.
  45. Teichman SL, Neale A, Lawrence B, Gagnon C, Castaigne JP, Frohman LA. Prolonged stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I secretion by CJC-1295, a long-acting analog of GH-releasing hormone, in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):799-805. doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-1536. Epub 2005 Dec 13. PMID: 16352683.
  46. Growth hormone releasing peptides [Internet]. Aging Matters Magazine. 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 10]. Available from:
  47. Sevigny JJ, Ryan JM, van Dyck CH, Peng Y, Lines CR, Nessly ML; MK-677 Protocol 30 Study Group. Growth hormone secretagogue MK-677: no clinical effect on AD progression in a randomized trial. Neurology. 2008 Nov 18;71(21):1702-8. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000335163.88054.e7. PMID: 19015485.
  48. Fan L, Chen J, Tao Y, Heng BC, Yu J, Yang Z, Ge Z. Enhancement of the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and cartilage repair by ghrelin. J Orthop Res. 2019 Jun;37(6):1387-1397. doi: 10.1002/jor.24224. Epub 2019 Feb 12. PMID: 30644571.
  49. Ng FM, Bornstein J. Hyperglycemic action of synthetic C-terminal fragments of human growth hormone. Am J Physiol. 1978 May;234(5):E521-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1978.234.5.E521. PMID: 645904.
  50. Food and Drug Administration (2010). Chemistry Reviews: Application 22-505.
  51. Johansen PB, Nowak J, Skjaerbaek C, Flyvbjerg A, Andreassen TT, Wilken M, Orskov H. Ipamorelin, a new growth-hormone-releasing peptide, induces longitudinal bone growth in rats. Growth Horm IGF Res. 1999 Apr;9(2):106-13. doi: 10.1054/ghir.1999.9998. PMID: 10373343.
  52. Raun K, Hansen BS, Johansen NL, et al. Ipamorelin, the first selective growth hormone secretagogue. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998;139(5):552-561. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1390552
  53. Andersen NB, Malmlöf K, Johansen PB, Andreassen TT, Ørtoft G, Oxlund H. The growth hormone secretagogue ipamorelin counteracts glucocorticoid-induced decrease in bone formation of adult rats. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2001;11(5):266-272. doi:10.1054/ghir.2001.0239
  54. Svensson J, Lall S, Dickson SL, et al. The GH secretagogues ipamorelin and GH-releasing peptide-6 increase bone mineral content in adult female rats. J Endocrinol. 2000;165(3):569-577. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1650569
  55. Wang J, He L, Huwatibieke B, Liu L, Lan H, Zhao J, Li Y, Zhang W. Ghrelin Stimulates Endothelial Cells Angiogenesis through Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) Signaling Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Aug 26;19(9):2530. doi: 10.3390/ijms19092530. PMID: 30149681; PMCID: PMC6164813.
  56. Liang ZT, Li J, Rong R, Wang YJ, Xiao LG, Yang GT, Zhang HQ. Ghrelin up-regulates cartilage-specific genes via the ERK/STAT3 pathway in chondrocytes of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Oct 15;518(2):259-265. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.08.044. Epub 2019 Aug 14. PMID: 31421834.
  57. Bowers CY, Reynolds GA, Durham D, Barrera CM, Pezzoli SS, Thorner MO. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide stimulates GH release in normal men and acts synergistically with GH-releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Apr;70(4):975-82. doi: 10.1210/jcem-70-4-975. PMID: 2108187.
  58. PubChem [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004-. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6918297, Examorelin; [cited 2022 Dec. 11]. Available from:
  59. Arvat, E., Maccagno, B., Ramunni, J. et al. Influence of galanin and serotonin on the endocrine response to Hexarelin, a synthetic peptidyl GH-secretagogue, in normal women. J Endocrinol Invest 21, 673–679 (1998).
  60. Mao Y, Tokudome T, Kishimoto I. The cardiovascular action of hexarelin. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2014 Sep;11(3):253-8. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2014.03.007. PMID: 25278975; PMCID: PMC4178518.
  61. McDonald H, Peart J, Kurniawan ND, Galloway G, Royce SG, Samuel CS, Chen C. Hexarelin targets neuroinflammatory pathways to preserve cardiac morphology and function in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;127:110165. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110165. Epub 2020 May 8. PMID: 32403043.
  62. Mosa RM, Zhang Z, Shao R, Deng C, Chen J, Chen C. Implications of ghrelin and hexarelin in diabetes and diabetes-associated heart diseases. Endocrine. 2015 Jun;49(2):307-23. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0531-z. Epub 2015 Feb 4. PMID: 25645463.
  63. Imbimbo BP, Mant T, Edwards M, Amin D, Dalton N, Boutignon F, Lenaerts V, Wüthrich P, Deghenghi R. Growth hormone-releasing activity of hexarelin in humans. A dose-response study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;46(5):421-5. doi: 10.1007/BF00191904. PMID: 7957536.
  64. PubChem [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004-. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 131954786; [cited 2022 Dec. 11]. Available from:
  65. Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0 Milligrams Base/Vial, and GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.05 Milligrams Base/Amp, Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness. (2021). Retrieved 3 June 2021, from
  66. Prakash A, Goa KL. Sermorelin: a review of its use in the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency. BioDrugs. 1999 Aug;12(2):139-57. doi: 10.2165/00063030-199912020-00007. PMID: 18031173.
  67. Sinha, D. K., Balasubramanian, A., Tatem, A. J., Rivera-Mirabal, J., Yu, J., Kovac, J., Pastuszak, A. W., & Lipshultz, L. I. (2020). Beyond the androgen receptor: the role of growth hormone secretagogues in the modern management of body composition in hypogonadal males. Translational Andrology and Urology, 9(Suppl 2), S149.
  68. Corpas E, Harman SM, Piñeyro MA, Roberson R, Blackman MR. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-(1-29) twice daily reverses the decreased GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels in old men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Aug;75(2):530-5. doi: 10.1210/jcem.75.2.1379256. PMID: 1379256.
  69. Khorram O, Laughlin GA, Yen SS. Endocrine and metabolic effects of long-term administration of [Nle27]growth hormone-releasing hormone-(1-29)-NH2 in age-advanced men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 May;82(5):1472-9. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.5.3943. PMID: 9141536.
  70. Bagno LL, Kanashiro-Takeuchi RM, Suncion VY, Golpanian S, Karantalis V, Wolf A, Wang B, Premer C, Balkan W, Rodriguez J, Valdes D, Rosado M, Block NL, Goldstein P, Morales A, Cai RZ, Sha W, Schally AV, Hare JM. Growth hormone-releasing hormone agonists reduce myocardial infarct scar in swine with subacute ischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Mar 31;4(4):e001464. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001464. PMID: 25827134; PMCID: PMC4579962.
  71. Walker RF. Sermorelin: a better approach to management of adult-onset growth hormone insufficiency? Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(4):307-8. doi: 10.2147/ciia.2006.1.4.307. PMID: 18046908; PMCID: PMC2699646.
  72. Alba M, Fintini D, Sagazio A, Lawrence B, Castaigne JP, Frohman LA, Salvatori R. Once-daily administration of CJC-1295, a long-acting growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, normalizes growth in the GHRH knockout mouse. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;291(6):E1290-4. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00201.2006. Epub 2006 Jul 5. PMID: 16822960.
  73. Next Generation Medicines from Therapeutic Peptides | ConjuChem LLC. (2021). Retrieved 13 March 2021, from
  74. Sam L. Teichman, Ann Neale, Betty Lawrence, Catherine Gagnon, Jean-Paul Castaigne, Lawrence A. Frohman, Prolonged Stimulation of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Secretion by CJC-1295, a Long-Acting Analog of GH-Releasing Hormone, in Healthy Adults, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 91, Issue 3, 1 March 2006, Pages 799–805,
  75. Van Hout MC, Hearne E. Netnography of Female Use of the Synthetic Growth Hormone CJC-1295: Pulses and Potions. Subst Use Misuse. 2016 Jan 2;51(1):73-84. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2015.1082595. Epub 2016 Jan 15. PMID: 26771670.
  76. Ipamorelin acetate: Summary Report [Internet]. The UMB Digital Archive. 2020 [cited 2022Dec11]. Available from:
  77. PubChem [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004-. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 6918245, Pralmorelin; [cited 2022 Dec. 12]. Available from:
  78. PubChem [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004-. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 9919153, Growth hormone releasing hexapeptide; [cited 2022 Dec. 12]. Available from:
  79. García Del Barco-Herrera D, Martínez NS, Coro-Antich RM, Machado JM, Alba JS, Salgueiro SR, Acosta JB. Epidermal growth factor and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6: combined therapeutic approach in experimental stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31(2):213-23. doi: 10.3233/RNN-120262. PMID: 23314006.
  80. Suda, Y., Kuzumaki, N., Sone, T. et al. Down-regulation of ghrelin receptors on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra contributes to Parkinson’s disease-like motor dysfunction. Mol Brain 11, 6 (2018).
  81. Hyland L, Rosenbaum S, Edwards A, Palacios D, Graham MD, Pfaus JG, Woodside B, Abizaid A. Central ghrelin receptor stimulation modulates sex motivation in male rats in a site dependent manner. Horm Behav. 2018 Jan;97:56-66. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.10.012. Epub 2017 Nov 8. PMID: 29080670.
  82. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Tailor made compounding LLC – 594743 – 04/01/2020 [Internet]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA; [cited 2022Dec12]. Available from:

This is sponsored content. M&F is not endorsing the websites or products listed in this article.