Nutrition

Science Behind the Supps: Xpedite

Performance Energy Raspberry Lemonade Flavored Drink Mix

 

CITRULLINE MALATE PROMOTES AEROBIC ENERGY PRODUCTION

Citrulline malate has been shown to promote aerobic energy production by buffering lactic acid buildup and reducing fatigue. European studies have shown that it significantly reduces mental and physical fatigue and exhaustion (16).

Research indicates that citrulline malate may boost athletic performance and recovery by accelerating the elimination of the toxic byproducts of protein metabolism and improving the capacity of the liver to remove ammonia and lactate from the blood (17, 18). Also, citrulline is converted to arginine, which is the precursor for nitric oxide (NO2), a key cellular signaling molecule (19). Increasing NO2 levels induces the relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels resulting in vasodilation and increased blood flow.

BETA-ALANINE ATTENUATES FATIGUE FOR MORE TRAINING VOLUME

Beta-alanine is a precursor of carnosine, which is a di-petide that is concentrated in muscle and brain tissue. Carnosine regulates important aspects of cell metabolism and may provide stamina and energy-enhancement benefits. Athletes use beta-alanine to support optimal carnosine production, which plays a role as an acid buffer within muscle cells and attenuates fatigue (20). A study conducted in 2008 found that beta-alanine supplementation increased training volume and reduced subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players (21). Researchers have also shown that carnosine has a number of beneficial anti-oxidant properties including hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities (22, 23).

CAFFEINE IMPROVES ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

Caffeine is a central nervous system and cardiac stimulant that has been widely demonstrated to enhance athletic performance. The central nervous system controls many cognitive functions and caffeine has been shown to improve concentration and alertness in military personnel (24). In a study of caffeine consumption involving 22 resistance-trained men ranging from 18 to 29 years old, muscle endurance improved in the bench press and leg press by 11 and 12 %, respectively (25). Another group of study participants using a graded treadmill after the ingestion of caffeine were found to have significantly increased VO2 max readings (26). Athletes participating in events that depend upon aerobic endurance, muscular endurance, and sustained mental concentration may be able to enhance their performances by taking caffeine prior to their activities.

DL-PHENYLALANINE ELEVATES MOOD AND ENHANCES CONCENTRATION

DL-Phenylalanine may help to elevate mood and enhance concentration. In one study, phenylalanine was taken every day for two weeks and a positive mood was obtained in 74% of the subjects (27).

If you're looking for a great pre-workout product to provide a smooth but powerful source of energy that also includes an extensive list of effective performance enhancers, then XPEDITE is for you! It's time to XPEDITE your fitness and performance goals!

This article is supplied and sponsored by SNAC. For more on SNAC, visit www.snac.com.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.


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Selected References:
R-Lipoic Acid
1. Oxidative stress in the aging rat heart is reversed by dietary supplementation with (R)-(alpha)-lipoic acid. Suh JH, Shigeno ET, et al. FASEB J 2001 Mar; 15(3): 700-6. 
2. (R)-alpha-Lipoic acid-supplemented Old Rats Have Improved Mitochondrial Function, Decreased Oxidative Damage, and Increased Metabolic Rate. Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, et al. FASEB J 1999 13:411-418.
3.  Cytokine-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle: redox regulation and the role of alpha-lipoic acid. Khanna S, Packer L, et al. Am J Physiol. 1999 May;276(5 Pt 2):R1327-33. 
4. Age-associated decline in ascorbic acid concentration, recycling, and biosynthesis in rat hepatocytes--reversal with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid supplementation. Lykkesfeldt J, Ames BN et al. FASEB J 1998 Sep; 12(12): 1183-9. 
5.  Pre-treatment with R-lipoic acid alleviates the effects of GSH depletion in PC12 cells: implications for Parkinson's disease therapy. Bharat S, Cochran BC, et al. Neurotoxicology. 2002 Oct;23(4-5):479-86.
Tyrosine
6. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. L. E. Bandert and H.R Lieberman. Brain Research Bulletin, 1989 Vol 22, pp 759-762.
7. Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. J.B. Diejen and J.F. Orlebeke. Brain Research Bulletin, 1994 Vol 33, pp 319-323.
8. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. D.F. Neri, er tal. Aviation, space and environmental medicine, April 1995, pp. 313-319
L-Carnitine
9. The role of carnitine and carnitine supplementation during   exercise in man and in individuals with special needs. Brass EP, et al.   J Am Coll Nutr (1998) 17:207-215.
10. Carnitine and physical exercise. Heinonen OJ. Sports Med (1996) 22:109-132.
11. L-Carnitine L-Tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. Volek JS, et al. Am J Physiol Endrocrinol Metab (2002) E474-E482.
12. Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of L-carnitine on some biological parameters in elite athletes. Dragan GI, et al.  Physiologie. 1987;24(1):23-28. 
13. The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine levels and various performance parameters of male marathon athletes. Swart I, et al. Nutr Res 1997;17:405-414
14. Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: Does it make sense? Karlic H, et al
Nutrition (2004) 20:709-15.
15. Effect of 2 weeks’ supplementation with L-carnitine L-tartrate on plasma ammonia 
response to exercise. Galloway SDR et al. FASEB  J (2004) 18(4-5):502.5.
Citrulline Malate
16. Citrulline malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. D. Bendahan, et al. Br J Sports Med, 2002 36 (4): 282-9.
17. Activity of citrulline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in animal and man. A Callis, et al. 199, 41 (6): 660-3.
18. Pharmacological/clinical approach of citrulline malate activity: study of blood lactate levels during standardized muscular exercise. E. Fornaris, et al. Gazette Medicale 1984, 91(11):125-128.
19. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase, two results. W.H. Waugh, et al. J Nathl Med Assoc; 2001, 93(10):363-71.
Beta-Alanine
20. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol. 2007 Nov; (5):1736-46. Epub 2007 Aug 9.
21. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, et al. Nutr Res. 2008 Jan;28(1):31-5.
22. Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions.  Klebanov GI, Teselkin YuO, et al. (1998). Membrane & Cell Biology 12 (1): 89–99. 
23. L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylanylhistamine)  act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities. Babizhayev MA, Seguin MC, Gueyne J, Evstigneeva RP, Ageyeva EA, Zheltukhina GA (December 1994). The Biochemical Journal. 304 (2):509-16. 
Caffeine
24. Caffeine effects on physical and cognitive performance during sustained operations. McLellan, T. M., et al. (2007). Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 78(9), 871-877.
25. Effects of caffeine ingestion on one-repetition maximum muscular strength. Astorino, T. A., Rohmann, R. L., & Firth, K. (2007). Effect European Journal of Applied Physiology, 102, 127-132.
26. Effects of ingesting JavaFit energy extreme functional coffee on aerobic and anaerobic fitness markers in recreationally-active coffee consumers. Roberts, M. D., et al. (2007). Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4(25)
Phenylalanine
27.  Effects of D-phenylalanine on clinical picture and phenethylaminuria in depression. Biological Psychiatry 10(2):235-239, 1975

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