The times per second the brain must send a message to the quads to contract during a single rep of leg presses.


The ability of cold-water immersion to reduce inflammation and speed recovery was tested by Australian researchers at Queensland University of Technology. Cold-water immersion did not differ from light cycling for reducing inflammation and cellular stress.


Researchers from Italy examining the changes in tendon structure following an abrupt stop in training warn that getting back in the gym should be done with caution. In short, after a layoff, even if you feel like jumping right back in where you left o , it is better to ease into your previous level of intensity to avoid risk of injury to tendons.

Cardio bicycle bike


A study performed by the Department of Health and Exercise Science at The College of New Jersey demonstrated that aerobic exercise performed before resistance exercise significantly reduced resistance exercise performance even when unrelated muscle groups were involved.


According to a paper published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, the classification of training routines by their sets, reps, and weight loads as either for bodybuilders or for strength athletes, is an oversimplification. The paper shows that both heavy-weight/lower-rep and moderate-weight/ higher-rep routines appear to elicit similar gains in muscle growth.