Renowned Soviet athletics coach Yuri Verkhoshansky—considered by many to be the greatest strength and conditioning coach ever— encouraged the use of the table below (“Where Volume Meets Intensity”) to indicate the best load and rep range for achieving a particular training goal. It was designed with Olympic weightlifters in mind, but the principles apply to any kind of resistance training.
For calisthenics, choose exercises based on the repetitions you need to perform and the level of difficulty (load, on the table) that’s appropriate for your goal.
For instance, ring dips are an advanced movement, so you may not be able to get more than five reps. Therefore, they’re a strength/power exercise and should be done first in a workout, when you’re fresh. Pushups are easier, and you may be able to do 25 at a clip. In that case you’d choose them to focus on endurance gains. Customize your training.